The term trademark includes any word, name, symbol or device, or any combination thereof to identify and distinguish goods or services of one enterprise from those manufactured or sold by other enterprises. According to Swiss Trademark Law descriptive or deceptive signs are basically excluded from trademark protection. The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property ("IPI") examines if a trademark application complies with the legal requirements for trademark registrations. In the course of the registration procedure companies or individuals not having their domicile or residence in Switzerland are obliged to appoint a representative (attorney at law, patent attorney) with domicile in Switzerland. Within the term of six month since the first filing of a trademark, the trademark protection may be extended to further countries, using the priority of the first filing (IR mark or internationally registered mark). International registrations valid for the member countries of the Madrid Agreement and the Madrid Protocol respectively may either be filed via IPI at the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO / OMPI) located in Geneva, Switzerland or by an appointed representative, e.g. specialised attorney (attorney at law or patent attorney) or a law firm specialised in intellectual property and technology law.